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History of the Bulgarian Orthodox Church.

[Information is from the Bulgarian Orthodox Church]

I. Conversion to Christianity of the Bulgarian people and foundation of the Bulgarian Church.

The Bulgarian Orthodox Church has its origin in the flourishing Christian communities and churches, set up in the Balkan Peninsula as early as the first centuries of the Christian era. The incursions of the Slavs and Proto-Bulgarian in the Balkan lands (6th-7th century) damaged considerably the ecclesiastical organization and created difficulties for the mission of christianization, but were not of a decisive significance for its further development. Byzantine writers testify to many contacts of the Eastern Empire with the new settlers-Slavs and Proto-Bulgarians, as well as to the relations of the conquerors with the christianized native populations. The Christian religion infiltrated the population of Bulgarian Slavs (the ancestors of the Bulgarian people) as early as the 6th and 7th century. The continuous process of Christian influence gradually enfolded the Proto-Bulgarians, too (7th-9th century).

The internal development and the international relations of the Slav-Bulgarian State (founded in 681) favored the successful penetration of Christianity, which infiltrated even the Khan's court (9th century). The local population, the Bulgarian Slavs who had already adopted Christianity, the steady contacts with Byzantium, the exchange of prisoners of war, the use of the Greek language and other factors paved the way for the mission of christianization in the First Bulgarian State. Pope Nicholas I was informed that as early as the beginning of the 60s of the 9th century "a great majority of the Bulgarians were converted to Christianity". After the adoption of the Christian faith by Prince Boris I (865), Christianity became the official religion in the Bulgarian State. Joseph Genesius wrote that "elect high clerics were sent from Constantinople to Bulgaria to consolidate the Christian faith there". The word of the Gospel yielded plenty of fruits.

Prince Boris was in favour of an enlightened and zealous clergy and an improved and autocephalous church, even with the status of a Patriarchate, witch would be in a position to meet the needs of the time: to help the unification of the people and to promote the cultural advancement of the State, to strengthen the new social order and the sovereignty and prestige of Bulgaria. Bearing all this in mind and using skillfully the historic situation, the favorable conditions and prospects, he started negotiations with Rome, which lasted for three years, then again renewed his old connections with the Byzantine Empire. From October 5, 869 to February 28, 870 an ecclesiastical council was held in Constantinople to discuss Patriarch Photius' question. Here came the Bulgarian envoys, who were welcomed very heartily and with due respect. At a special session (on March 4), with the participation of Rome's envoys and of representatives of the four Eastern Patriarchates, the council discussed the question of church jurisdiction in Bulgarian.

After prolonged debates, which disclosed the deepening contradiction between Rome and Constantinople, it was decided that the Bulgarian nation was connected in church matters to the Christians East. That representative forum created on March 4, 870 a separate diocese and laid the foundations of the Bulgarian Church, which was thus bound forever with the Eastern Orthodox community. Chronologically it was the eighth one in succession (after the four Eastern Patriarchates: those of Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch and Jerusalem, and the three ancient archbishopric of Cyprus, of Sinai and of Georgia) in the then organic community of the Orthodox sister-churches. At the beginning the Bulgarian Church was an autonomous archbishopric under the jurisdiction of the Constantinople Patriarchate, from which it obtained its first primate, its clergy and theological books. It enjoyed, however, a full internal autonomy. The conditions were soon ripe for its flourishing and for its receiving an autocephalous status.

II. The Bulgarian Orthodox Church in the middle ages (First and Second Kingdom of Bulgaria).

In 886 the most distinguished followers and disciples of the Holy Slav Educators Cyril and Methodius came to Bulgaria. Preslav and Ohrid became literary centers where schools were opened. As a result of their activities there ensued the so-called "Golden Age" of Old Bulgarian literature and learning. As early as the end of the 9th century the Bulgarian language became the official language of the Church and the State. The building of churches and monasteries promoted the development of Bulgarian art. From a thorny pagan corn-field, overgrown with weeds, Bulgarian turned into a true spiritual nursery and a mighty beacon of Slav culture. The Bulgarian Church already had its own hierarchy, it grew in strength and spiritual maturity, and successfully consolidated the Orthodox faith, piety and education and guided the people towards a creative upsurge.

In the 10th century the First Bulgarian State reached the summit of its development. Christianity gave a impetus to the progressive for that time process of feudalization and consolidate the central state power. The Church made its contribution toward the external political stability of the State, towards the creation of a national, religious and spiritual unity, towards the cultural flourishment of the people and the homeland. After the victories at the battlefields at Acheloe (a river near Anchialus) and Katassyrti (near Constantinople), the Bulgarian ruler Prince Simeon proclaimed himself a king. The status of the Church had to correspond to that of the increased international prestige of the Bulgarian State. At the time the theory created in Byzantium predominated that a close relation should exist between Kingdom and Patriarchate: " Imperium sine Patriarcha non staret ". By virtue of that concept, about 919, the Bulgarian Church was proclaimed autocephalous at an ecclesiastical and national council and was elevated to the rank of a Patriarchate. In 927, as a result of a treaty, the relation between Bulgaria and Byzantium improved. As can be seen from the historical source "Archbishops of Bulgaria"(the so-called Catalogue of Ducange), the autocephalous status of the Bulgarian Church was then recognized and its patriarchal dignity acknowledged.

During the second half of the 10th century, following some military and political development, the Bulgarian Patriarchal see was successively moved from the capital Preslav to Dorostol, and then to Triaditsa (Sofia), Voden, Muglen, Prespa, and at the end to Ohrid, the capital of the Western Bulgaria State under King Samouil (976-1014).

After the fall of Bulgaria under Byzantium domination (1018), Emperor Basil II acknowledged the autocephalous status of the Archbishopric of Ohrid and by virtue of special charters (royal decrees) set up its boundaries, dioceses, property and other privileges, but deprived it of its Patriarchal title. The second charter of the Emperor and the catalogue of Ducange clearly show that the Archbishopric of Ohrid was the successor and continuator of the ancient Bulgarian Patriarchate. In spite of the fact that it had been under different political rules (those of Byzantium, of the Latin Empire, of Bulgarians, Serbs, Turks), its autocephalous status was respected for almost eight centuries - until its unlawful destruction in 1767. Despite of the fact that it passed along a road of serious trials and that for a long time it was guided by a foreign clergy, the Archbishopric of Ohrid successfully carried out its church mission, kept up the Slav liturgy, made its contribution towards the development of Slav literature and strengthened the political consciousness of its flock, and then later on it served as a banner to the fighter for independent Bulgarian Church.

As a results of the successful uprising led by the brothers Peter end Assen (1185-1186), the foundation of the Second Bulgarian State were laid with Turnovo as its capital. Due to the bonds of continuity between the religious centers of Preslav and Ohrid and mainly to the principle of linking up the sovereignty of the State with the autocephality of the Church, both the clergy and the believing people in Bulgaria striven for the restoration of the Bulgarian Patriarchate. At the beginning an independent archbishopric was established in Turnovo (1186). Soon steps were taken for its recognition, according to the existing canonical order, and for raising it to the rank of a Patriarchate. As a result of the connections of the Bulgarian King Kaloyan (1203-1204) with the Pope, which he had established mainly with a political purpose, the first Archbishop of Turnovo, Vassily, was proclaimed Primate by Pope Innocent III. His title was "Primate and Archbishop of all Bulgaria and Wallachia".

The Church of Bulgaria consolidated its position both in external and internal affairs. Soon conditions were created for the general recognition of its autocephalous status and for elevating it to a Patriarchate. In 1235 a big Church Council was convened in the town of Lampsakos presided over by Patriarch Germanos II of Constantinople. Many Greek and Bulgarian church dignitaries, abbots of monasteries and monks from Mount Athos took part in it. With the consent of all Eastern Patriarchs the council confirmed the Patriarchal dignity of the Bulgarian Church. Headed by distinguished primates, it was well organized, had a large diocese, was active and has in general left behind a bright trance in history. Under the wing of the Bulgarian Patriarchate the Turnovo literary and educational school was organized whose representatives were such outstanding men of learning and enlightenment as St. Theodosy of Turnovo, St. Patriarch Euthymy and a host of other eminent scholars. Thus it became a zealous champion of the cause of the Ohrid and Preslav schools. Considerable upsurge was noted in the field of literature, architecture, painting, etc. Religious and theological literature flourished. The greatest writer and scholar, exemplary clergyman and ardent patriot was Patriarch Euthymy of Turnovo (died ca. 1404).

After the fall of Turnovo under Ottoman domination (1393) and Patriarch Euthymy was sent into exile, the autocephalous church organization was destroyed once again. The Bulgarian diocese was subordinated to the Constantinople Patriarchate. The other Bulgarian religious center - Ohrid - managed to survive a few centuries longer (until 1767), as a stronghold of faith and piety.

III. The Church a the protector of the Bulgarian people during the five-centuries-long political and spiritual yoke.

At the end of the 14th century the Bulgarian people lost its political and spiritual independence. The hard condition of this double subjugation hampered their cultural end political development. The suppression, the merciless exploitation and the atrocities compelled thousand of Bulgarians, along with the majority of the intelligentsia who survived, to emigrate to Wallachia, Moldavia, Russia, Serbia and Austria. Mass-scale emigration of Bulgarian from their motherland were frequent after the uprising, and after each one of the Russia-Turkish Wars.

Many people were converted to the Islam by force, banned from their home and killed by the Ottoman oppressors. Thus for instance, by order of the Grand Vizier Mehmed Kuprulu the Chepino Bulgarians were Mohammedanized in 1657. Methody Draginov, a priest of the village of Korova, informs that those who refused to accept the Islam were killed, while the houses of those who fled to the woods were burnt down. In the 16th and 17th centuries many Bulgarian from the districts of Lovech, Teteven, Svishtov, Nikopol and Turnovo were Mohammedanized in the same way. The Deliorman region, which in the 16th century was still Bulgarian, after the 17th century acquired a Mohammedan aspect through colonization and forceful conversion of the Christian population to the Islam. Thus the Christians merged with the dense Ottoman masses and lost their native language. During the 17th century many other Bulgarians from Razlog, Kroupnik and from the valley of the River Bregalnitsa suffered a similar fate. In the 18th century the population of the villages of Turnovti and Cherkovna in the Preslav District was also Mohammedanized.

Part of the Mohammedanized Bulgarians lost for ever their national consciousness and their native language. Another part, the so-called Pomaks or Bulgarian-Mohammedans, preserved their native Bulgarian language and customs, but lost for centuries the consciousness of being part of the Bulgarian people.

The conquerors did not spare even the Christian sanctuaries and the cultural monuments. In Turnovo the Patriarchal Cathedral church of the Holy Ascension and the St. Petka Court Church were destroyed. The conquerors of Turnovo Bulgaria razed to the ground 18 Boyar churches at the Trapesitsa Hill. The Church of the 40 Holy Martyrs was turned into a mosque, while the Church of the Holy Virgin in Turnovo was reconstructed as a Turkish bath. In the Plovdiv diocese Chepino Pomaks destroyed 218 churches and 33 monasteries. In the town of Vidin the Cathedral Church of the Holy Virgin was destroyed. Many Churches in various parts of the country were turned into mosques.

The blow dealt on the Bulgarian church organization was also a heavy one, since it was made subordinate to the Patriarchate of Constantinople. The Greek clergy pursued an assimilatory policy. At the beginning the high Bulgarian clerics were replaced by Greek ones, who officiated the churches and celebrated mass in the Greek language of which the Bulgarian population was completely ignorant. They opened Greek schools which conducted assimilatory activities. Such schools were organized in Turnovo, Svishtov, Kotel, Sliven, Plovdiv, Andrianople, Strouga, Bitolya, Voden, Stroumitsa, Melnik, Seres and other towns.

The Ottoman conquerors granted extensive civic and judicial rights to the Patriarch of Constantinople. He became a high-ranking officer of the Sultan and the head of all Orthodox Christian in the Ottoman Empire. Civic and judicial function were also granted to the diocesan metropolitans, mostly of Greek origin, who imposed on the Bulgarian population heavy taxes which they collected by force with the help of the local authorities.

The tormented Bulgarian people were eager to have their own independent church and to enjoy political freedom for which they fought whit might and main. During this hard time the Church proved to be the staunchest defender of the faith of the ancestors, the protector of the national spirit and the propagator or patriotism. Among those who took part in the first Turnovo uprising, organized in 1598,were some high church dignitaries, such as Metropolitan Dionissy of Turnovo and the bishops Theophan of Lovech, Jeremiah of Rouse, Spiridon of Shoumen and Methody of Roman (of Thracia), as well as 23 priests from Nikopol and 12 priests from Turnovo.

In the second half of the 16th century Archbishop Athanassy of Ohrid was prominent as an organizer of the liberation movement.

During the 17th century the Roman-Catholic Priest Peter Parchevich organized an uprising against the Ottoman authorities.

In 1737 Metropolitan Simeon of Samokov was hanged for his patriotic activities.

The Church gave quite a numbers of martyrs for faith and kin. Stunning are the feats of St. Georgi of Kratovo (+1515), St. Nikolay of Sofia (+1515), Bishop Vissarion of Smolen (+1670), Damaskin of Gabrovo (+1771), St. Zlata of Muglen (+1795), St. John the Bulgarian (+1814), St. Ignaty of Stara Zagora (+1814), St. Onouphry of Gabrovo (+1818) and of many others.

The monasteries played a great part in the preservation of the Orthodox faith and the national consciousness of the Bulgarian people during the year of foreign domination. Scattered all over the Bulgarian lands, the monasteries satisfied the religious demands of the people in the place, where they were neither churches, not priest. They preserved the Christian and national consciousness, they taught the population how to write and read in their schools, they trained the future priest, propagated piety and carried out literary and education activities. This was true especially of the monasteries of Zograph and of Hilendar on Mt. Athos, of the Rila Monastery, the Troyan, Etropole, Dryanovo and Cherepish Monasteries, as well as of the Kouklen Monastery near Assenovgrad, the Lessnovo, Glozhene, Dragalevtsi and other monasteries. Famous scholars of that epoch were Vladislav Grammatik (15th century), Dimiter Kantakouzin (15th century), Father Peyo (16th century), Mathey Grammatik (16th century), Father Todor of Vratsa (18th century) and others.

Besides them traveling monks (taxidiotes) toured the country, opened cell schools, taught the illiterate people how to read and write and carried out educative activities. They were the predecessors of the Bulgarian National Revival. An untiring taxidiote and scholar was Yossif Bradati (Joseph the Bearded) (18th century).

During the yoke primary school attached to churches and monasteries were opened in Tryavna, Elena, Vratsa, Gabrovo, Sofia, Plovdiv, Pirot, Skopie, Samokov, Kalofer, Sopot, Koprivshtitsa, in the villages in the Strandja Mountain and elsewhere.

A series of uprisings against the oppressors were organized in the monasteries. The first ardent call for a national awakening came also from a monastery. St. Paissy of Hilendar (second half of the 18th century) was the first who headed the Bulgarian National Revival. The program for an independent church and political freedom he outlined in his "Slav-Bulgarian History". This wonderful book attracted other active workers for a national awakening. Among the followers of St. Paissy were the following clergymen: St. Sophrony of Vratsa (1739-1813), hieromonk Spiridon of Gabrovo (18th century), hieromonk Yoakim Kurchovski (+1820), hieromonk Kiril Peichinovich (+1845) and others. The power of resistance of the people was stirred to action. A struggle for religious and national independence began, which brought

IV. The Bulgarian Exarchate (Third Kingdom of Bulgaria).

For several centuries the Bulgarian Church was under the jurisdiction of the Patriarchate of Constantinople. The Greek Church organization, in which the Bulgarian were included, and the fact that the conquerors regarded as one the religion and the nationality of the Bulgarian living in the Ottoman Empire, resulted in due time in an association of the Bulgarians with the Greek, so that they became to be known under the common name of "Roum-Milet", i.e. Greek people. Thus the Bulgarian gradually ceased to be considered a separate nation.

For five centuries the conquerors directed their principle attacks against the Orthodox-Christian faith of the Subjugated population and tried to assimilate them. The firm abiding of the Bulgarian people by the faith of their ancestors helped them to preserve their nationality. The spiritual strain of this long period of firm resistance raised many people to the glory of sanctity. The Bulgarian people, linked in destiny and historic mission with the other Balkan nation, made their contribution towards arresting the Islamic invasion into Western Europe, which would have had unfavorable consequences for its development and would have delayed the Renaissance. That is why the part played by the Bulgarian people in this respect has an all-European and hence a world-wide cultural and historic significance.

In the second half of the 18th century, along with the economic revival of the Bulgarian people, the Bulgarian monk, St. Paissy of Hilendar, laid the foundation of the Bulgarian National Revival with his book "Slav-Bulgarian History". St. Paissy pointed out that the restoration of the independent Bulgarian Church, which would mean the recognition of the Bulgarian population as a Bulgarian nationality and as a Bulgarian nation, separate from the Greeks, was the first and absolutely necessary prerequisite for the restoration of the independent Bulgarian State. The cultural and educative activities of Bishop Sophrony of Vratsa gave a mighty impetus of the realization of this idea. When all the strata of the Bulgarian people embraced the idea, the struggle broke out for the restoration of the independent Bulgarian Church and against the power of the Greek clergy. In the course of four decades the Bulgarian population of Moesia, Thrace and Macedonia united this struggle in one ethnic body with a well-defined national consciousness as a Bulgarian nation. In 1870, by a decree (firman) of the Sultan, the Ottoman government restored the once unlawfully destroyed Bulgarian Patriarchate under the name of "Bulgarian Exarchate". According to art. 10 of the firman, it included in its diocese all Bulgarian Regions. Thus the conquerors officially recognized before the world the Bulgarian nation and authoritatively determined their ethnic boundaries. The Bulgarian Church thus won the international juridical recognition of this nation before the world and consolidated it ethnically, spiritually, culturally, historically, territorially and, to a certain degree, also politically.

In 1871 a Council of the Church and the People took place with representative of the dioceses in North Bulgaria, Thrace and Macedonia. A total of 12 clerics, among them 5 prelates, and 36 laymen took part in it. The Statute of the Bulgarian Exarchate was adopted. Both the Council and the Statute were profoundly penetrated by the synod principle. The Statute established two supreme organs for the central management of the Church: The Holy Synod, consisting only of prelates, with a competence in purely ecclesiastical affairs, and the Supreme Secular Exarchate Council, comprising of six laymen under the chairmanship of the Exarch, with a competence in the non-religious affairs; for the diocesan management - a prelate and a mixed council of three clerics and 5-7 laymen; for the vicariates (church country) - a vicar and a mixed council of three clerics and 5-7 laymen; for the perish - the perish priest aided by the entire church community. The Statue installed the electoral principle: the respective principle organs of church management were appointed to their posts only by the way of election (by the bishop, the clerics and the people). Beside their direct church work it entrusted these organs with schoolmanaging activities, with cultural and educational work and social-ethical activities, which they developed on a large scale.

Freed from outer dependence, the Bulgarian Exarchate devoted itself wholly to a useful service of the people. It gave, in fact, the first political education to the Bulgarian people in a spirit of profound patriotism. Its diocese became the criterion for the Great Powers in determining the ethical boundaries of the Bulgarian people immediately after the April Uprising (1876). Until 1913 it governed quite a number of dioceses, in Northern and Southern Bulgaria, in Macedonia and Adrianople Thrace. Only in Macedonia and in the Andrianople Region alone the Bulgarian Exarchate disposed of over seven dioceses with prelates and eight more with acting chairmen in charge, with 38 vicariates, 1 218 parishes and 1 212 parish priest, 64 monasteries and 202 chapels, as well as 1 373 schools with 2 266 teachers and 78 854 pupils.

After World War I, by virtue of the peace treaties, the Bulgarian Exarchate was deprived of its dioceses in Macedonia and Aegean Thrace. As early as 1913 Exarch Joseph I transferred his offices from Istanbul to Sofia. After His death (1915) the Church was for long time not in a position to elect its regular head. It occupied itself instead with its direct task to intensify its educational and social-ethical activities. Religious printed publication were issued regularly, the distribution of the Holy Bible and of theological literature was increased and the struggle against foreign religious propaganda was intensified.

V. Restoration of the Bulgarian Patriarchate (Republic of Bulgaria).

The establishment of the Bulgarian Exarchate (1870) represents a transitory historical stage leading to the restoration of the Bulgarian Patriarchate, which ceased to exist at the end of the 14th century.

As early as the National Revival period the Bulgarian clergy thought of realizing the idea of St. Paissy of Hilendar of a restoration of the Bulgarian Patriarchate.

The dependence of the Patriarchate of Constantinople, the difficulties, caused by the foreign political domination and by other factors, compelled them to carry out the realization of this ideal of the National Revival step by step.

After the victory in Bulgaria from 1944 possibilities were created for the See of the Bulgarian Exarchate, which for 30 years was left without a regular primate, to have again its head. With the help of the Orthodox Sister-Churches (especially the Russian one), and thanks to the favorable attitude of the Bulgarian Government, on February 22, 1945 the schism was lifted, which for the several decades had impeded the normal inter-church relation of the Exarchate. The Patriarchate of Constantinople recognized the autocephaly of the Bulgarian Church with a special thomos.

In 1950, the Statute of the Bulgarian Orthodox Church was worked out, which further paved the way for the restoration of the Patriarchate. Already in the opening paragraph of the Stature (art. I) "the self-governing Bulgarian Orthodox Church" was called a "Patriarchate".

In its sessions on January 3, 1953 the Holy Synod of the Bulgarian Orthodox Church decided to convene a Council of the Church and the People on May 8 the same year, with the aim to restore the Patriarchal dignity of the our Church and to elect a Patriarch. All Orthodox Churches were informed about this decision and invited to send their representative for the ceremonies of enthronement of the newly-elected Patriarch.

Delegations of the following Orthodox Churches arrived in the capital city of Sofia for the great religious and national festivities: Russian, headed by Metropolitan Grigory of Leningrad (Sank-Petersburg) and Novgorod; Romanian, headed by Patriarch Justinian; Polish, headed by the Primate Metropolitan Makary; Czechoslovak, headed by the Primate Metropolitan Elevtery. Besides them the following Churches took part with their own representatives at the festivities or cabled their congratulations: the Church of Alexandria, of Antioch, of Jerusalem, of Georgia, of Serbia and the Church of Hellas.

The Third Council of the Church and the People convened according to the stipulation of the Statute (May 8-10), restored the Patriarchal Status of the Bulgarian Church and on May 10 elected His Grace Metropolitan Cyrill of Plovdiv, Chairman of the Holy Synod and Chairman of the Council, as Patriarch of Bulgaria and Metropolitan of Sofia.

The enthronement took place immediately after the election in the Patriarchal Cathedral, the St. Alexander Nevsky Memorial Church, in the presence of representatives of the Bulgarian Government, of figures active in cultural life, foreign delegation and a numerous congregation.

The newly-restored Bulgarian Patriarchate was recognized by all Orthodox Churches. Its Primate established close ties with them by means of fraternal messages and visits. With his arch-shepherdly, religious, educational, peace promoting and scientific activities he won wide popularity with the Christian world, as well as cultural spheres in Bulgaria and abroad. The prestige of the Bulgarian Church rose both among the Orthodox and other Christian Churches and organizations and among the general public in the world.

After the death of His Holiness Patriarch Cyrill (March 7, 1971), at its session on May 19, 1971, and by virtue of Art. 16-23 of the Statute of the Bulgarian Church, the Holy Synod decided to carry out the election of a new Patriarch.

The Council of the Church and the People for the Election of a Patriarch, convened on July 4, 1971, unanimously elected His Grace Metropolitan Maxim of Lovech, then Deputy Chairman of the Holy Synod and Chairman of the Council, as Patriarch of Bulgaria and Metropolitan of Sofia.

Immediately after that the ceremonial enthronement of the new Patriarch took place in the Patriarchal Cathedral of St. Alexander Nevsky in the presence of representatives of the Government and the Bulgarian public, foreign delegation and many worshippers.

The following Churches and inter-Christian organization took part in the festivities with their delegation or cabled their congratulation: the Ecumenical Patriarchate, headed by Metropolitan Spiridon of Rhodes; the Patriarchate of Alexandria, headed by Archbishop Imenios of Lydia; the Russian Orthodox Church, headed by Patriarch Pimen of Moscow and All-Russia; the Georgian Church, headed by the Patriarch-Catholicos Ephrem II; the Serbian Church, headed by Bishop Emilian of Slavonia; the Romanian Church, headed by Patriarch Justiniyan; the Church of Cyprus, headed by Chorbishop Chrysostomos of Constance; the Church of Hellas, headed by Metropolitan Stefan of Triphilia; the Polish Orthodox Church, headed by its Primate Metropolitan Vassily of Warsaw; the Czechoslovak Orthodox Church, headed by its Primate Metropolitan Dorothey; the Finnish Church, headed by Rev. Olli Bergman; the Russian Orthodox Church in the United State of America, headed by Archbishop John of Chicago and Minneapolis; the Japanese Orthodox Church, headed by Archbishop Vladimir; the Armenian Church, headed by Bishop Dirrir Mardkyan; the World Council of Churches, headed by Pastor Jens Thomson, Assistant Secretary General; the Christian Peace Conference, headed by its Secretary General Dr. Janus Makovsky; the "Pax" organization, headed by Mieczislaw Stahura. Present were also representatives of the Bulgarian Dioceses of Akron and Detroit, headed by Protoierey Boris Vagnev.

The Bulgarian Orthodox Church seen in the person of the His Holiness Patriarch Maxim, its father, who with profound faith and purity, with love, wisdom, will power, tenacity and farsightedness, guides it, with the help of the Holy Synod.

Two maps of the Bulgarian Exarchate Church, between the 19th & 20th centuries.

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Map of the Ohrid Archbishopric during the Bulgarian medieval empire.

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Christian Message Board.

http://members3.boardhost.com/beliver/

Orthodox Christianity.

The Bulgarian Orthodox Church.

The Bulgarian Orthodox Church in English.

Bulgarian Orthodox Diocese of Western- and Central Europe.

Poststamp of Father Paisij.

With Christ and Macedonia in the heart. Foundation Methodi Koussev.

The Pokrov Foundation.

Archive of the www-site of the Church of Bulgaria.

Pravoslavieto.

MAKEDONSKA PRAVOSLAVNA CRKVA.

Macedonian Orthodox Church.

Orthodox Christian Information Centre.

Expulsion of Orthodox Christians from Tsarigrad at the begining of the 20th century.

The Icons of Bulgaria.

Churches and Monasteries.

Bulgarskata Pravoslavna Tsarkva v Norvegia.

St. Alexander Nevski, Memorial Church.

The Boyana Church near Sofia.

Churches in Ohrid with Map.

Old Bulgarian & Thracian Religions.

Fire Dancing - Nestinarstvo.

The Threat of Islam.

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BBC: Arab volunteers want to fight in Kosovo.

WorldNetDaily: The Arabs 'Berlin Wall'

Persecution.com - The Voice of the Martyrs.

Persecution of Eastern Christians under Islam through History.

Institute for the Secularisation of Islamic Society.

Islam Unveiled, Interview with Ergun Caner.

Information about the wicked Sharia Laws.

Americans are waking up to the threat of Islam.

JEWISH TASK FORCE.

Fundamentalist Hate Sermon in Palestine.

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Books.

Bulgarian Bookshop Online.

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Treasures of Bulgaria.
By Peter Konstntinov
 
Format: Hardcover, 251pp.
ISBN: 9540715180
Publisher: Saint Kliment Ohridski University Press
Pub. Date: October  2001
 
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Bulgarian Rhapsody : The Best of Balkan Cuisine.
by Linda J. Forristal, Angela Eisenbart (Illustrator)

Bulgaria is a small Balkan country that gets little attention. On a visit in 1990, however, Linda Joyce Forristal fell in love with both the country and its food. In Bulgarian Rhapsody, she painstakingly presents Bulgarian cooking, placing emphasis on many of its full-flavored and colorful vegetarian dishes, though popular meat dishes are included as well.

The Bulgarian kitchen is heavily influenced by Mediterranean cooking, not a surprise since the neighboring Turks occupied it for 500 years. Greece is also a neighbor, along with Romania and Yugoslavia. Bulgarians favor the slow cooking of stews and soups. They use fresh vegetables, particularly tomatoes, sweet red peppers, eggplant, zucchini, and potatoes. Stuffed grape leaves, phyllo pies, and mousaka--the Bulgarian spelling--will be familiar. Forristal offers a meatless mousaka made with zucchini and several kinds of plakiya, stews that are vibrant with tomatoes and onions, similar to dishes you find in Greek restaurants. The gyuveches are baked stews that resemble their Romanian counterparts. The typical meatless one made with string beans, tomatoes, eggplant, cabbage, potatoes, carrots, red and green bell peppers, and zucchini, resembles a ratatouille. The one made with sausages and red peppers is much simpler.

If you enjoy discovering new dishes, tutmanik, a quickbread made with cheese, and Baked Peppers Stuffed with White Beans are alluring. The potato salad seasoned with oregano and paprika is also different from the usual. Do ignore one technique Forristal uses: peeling roasted peppers under running water washes away much of their flavor. Better to leave a few charred specks of skin than to do this. --Dana Jacobi

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Bulgarian Antarctic Research - Life Sciences, Vol. 2.
 
Edited by V. Golemansky and N. Chipev
ISBN: 9546420700

The second volume of the Bulgarian Antarctic Research Series contains papers presenting the scientific results of the Fourth and Fifth Bulgarian Antarctic Expedition (1996, 1997). Coverage includes papers on the soil morphology, micriflora, yeast strains, soil microorganisms, macromycetes, interstitial amoebae, soil nematodes, marine crustaceans, cestodes in penguins etc at the Bulgarian Antarctic Base on the Livingston Island, South Shetlands, Antarctic.
 
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Voices from the Gulag : Life and Death in Communist Bulgaria.
by Tzvetan Todorov (Editor), Robert Zaretsky (Editor)

One of the most terrible legacies of our century is the concentration camp. Countless men and women have passed through camps in Nazi Germany, Communist China, and the Soviet bloc countries. In Voices from the Gulag, Tzvetan Todorov singles out the experience of one country where the concentration camps were particularly brutal and emblematic of the horrors of totalitarianismcommunist Bulgaria.

The voices we hear in this book are mostly from Lovech, a rock quarry in Bulgaria that became the final destination for several thousand men and women during its years of operation from 1959 to 1962. The inmates, though drawn from various social, professional, and economic backgrounds, shared a common fate: they were torn from their homes by secret police, brutally beaten, charged with fictitious crimes, and shipped to Lovech. Once there, they were forced to endure backbreaking labor, inadequate clothing, shelter, and food, systematic beatings, and institutionalized torture.

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Stefan Stambolov and the Emergence of Modern Bulgaria, 1870-1895.
By Duncan M. Perry.
Format: Hardcover, 241pp.
ISBN: 0822313138
Publisher: Duke University Press
Pub. Date: June  1993

A biography of the controversial leader--a revolutionary in his early years, a dictatorial prime minister in later life--chronicling his transformation and his impact. Annotation c. Book News, Inc., Portland, OR (booknews.com)

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SERB - BULGARIAN WAR 1885.
Illustrated book
ISBN 954 90587-1-9

Text, paintings and drawings by Alexander Vatchkov Sofia 2002; 80 pages, soft cover, large format: 21.5 x 29 cm. 8 1/2 x 11 1/12 inches. Text in Bulgarian, 4 pages summary in English. All pictures are described in English and Bulgarian. This is the first book of the series - "The wars for Bulgarian uniting". The priceless information on this obsecure subject can't be deliver better than anybody else but the Bulgarian historians themself. The most valuable for the military collectors and historians are the detailed capture and description of the Bulgarian and Serbian uniforms of all different forces. Tere are: 15 color drawing 16 b&w drawing and 27 b&w pictures 14 maps and a lot move valuable information understandable only for the Bulgarian speaking readers.

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Crown of Thorns: The Reign of King Boris III of Bulgaria, 1918-1943, Stephan Groueff.

A fascinating biography of Bulgaria's tragic monarch, Boris III, based on private correspondence and extensive interviews with members of the Bulgarian royal family. The son of King Ferdinand of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, Boris became king after the first World War. Noted for defying Hitler wishes for Bulgaria's Jews, the popular king died mysteriously in 1943 after a stormy meeting with Hitler.
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BULGARIAN ARMORED VEHICLES 1935-1945.

Equipment and Armor in the Bulgarian Army. ARMORED VEHICLES 1935 - 1945 By Kaloyan Matev, Sofia 2000, ISBN 954-90587-7-8, 127 pages, soft cover. size 24/16 sm. the whole text is in English and Bulgarian. This book is an illustrated (16 color illustrations and 85 black & white pictures). Study and description of the establishment and organizational development of the Tank Forces in Bulgaria during the period 1935-1945. The short period of time presented permits an in-depth analysis of all known supplies of armored vehicles in the Bulgarian Army till the beginning of the large-scale supply of Soviet equipment. There are presentations of different types and makes of armored vehicles, which allow the book to be used as a reference book too. It is the first time a special attention is paid to the camouflage, registration and identification marks used in the Bulgarian Tank Forces till the end of the World War II.

Bulgaria 1878-1918: A History.
By Richard J. Crampton
 
 
From Choice 
Although intended for the nonspecialist, {this work} is solidly based upon archival and published sources in Bulgarian and major European languages, and it will be of interest to scholars in the field as well as the general reader. . . . The extensive 'Bibliography and Sources' includes a list of sources used for each chapter as well as general works consulted, but the arrangement is excessively awkward. Despite this flaw, the book is solid, well written, and useful. Recommended for all academic and public libraries with an interest in the history of Bulgaria, the Balkans, and Europe before WW I.
 
From Philip Shashko - The American Historical Review 
The book is a product of extensive, meticulous research in Austrian and British archival materials and in specialized studies, both Bulgarian and foreign. The result is the best history of Bulgaria in English and one of the mostsatisfactory one-volume studies in any language. . . . Those sections dealingwith social and economic life are the most interesting and useful parts of this study. . . . The book has some important omissions. The unification of Bulgaria is not accorded the significance that is its due. . . . Crampton fails to show the process whereby former revolutionaries and idealists became corruptpoliticians and bureaucrats. Had Bulgarian developments been placed in a more general Balkan context, the book would have been of even greater value. Despite these problems this is a significant, indispensable, and balanced accountof Bulgarian history between 1878 and 1918.
 
From Peter Morris - History 
{The author's} careful examination of the relationship between Bulgaria and her self-appointed patron, Imperial Russia, is eloquent of the tribulationsof clientage. The six substantial chapters on economic and social conditionsare particularly interesting. They contain information not readily availableelsewhere and make a significant contribution to knowledge on conditions in the Balkans during the crucial decades before 1914. . . . Whilst occasionally over-elaborate in detail, the unappetising record of graft, corruption and electoral manipulation characteristic of political life in independent Bulgaria provided by the author confirms doubts as to the value of the democratic processin this as in so many other independent eastern European states, and helps explain the readiness with which communist systems were welcomed by substantial sections of their populations after 1945.
 
Bulgaria's Road to the First World War.
 
By Richard C. Hall
 
 
Discusses Bulgarian foreign policy and how it was transformed from Russia's most loyal Balkan friend in 1911 to its most hated enemy in 1913.
 
After an introductory survey of Bulgarian history since the 10th century, details internal and external events during the first decade and a half of the 20th that determined the country's diplomatic position when war broke out. Emphasizes the recognition by Bulgarians that only under the tutelage of a great power could they establish an independent country and their attempts to balance concessions with aid.

WWI MACEDONIA German Bulgaria WAR PHOTO BOOK.
 
 
Item description: * DONT MISS TO SEE ALL LINKED SCANS REMARKABLE! Presented is an extreme Bibliography rarity and a true militaria and military history gem. This UNIQUE book, or to be precise - a specially designed photo album of Macedonia and the Macedonian front during WWI was made for the German and Bulgarian Army and personally designed by Hannes M. Avenarius. The book has 13 fully engraved pages with superb graphical work of Avenarius and all pages have hand painted parts in full color and gold. All those truly remarkable engravings of Avenarius make the book a fine work of art. Each book that was printed has been personally signed by M. Avenarius and dated.

The book is about the size of an A4 format, 60 or more mm thick and consists of about 100 pages of engravings and art photo reproductions from the Macedonian front, the life of the German and Bulgarian Army, the life of the Macedonian people and other town views. Also there is a number of specially selected photos of the German aviation units as well as of the German Imperial 34th Balloon unit near Skopie.

The title and inside covers of the album are Avenarius engravings printed in red, black and gold and are titled MACEDONIA:

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Goli Otok, Dragoslav Mihailovic.
 
Tito's deathcamp where many MacedonoBulgarians ended up.

Dragoslav Mihailovic (b. 1930) is best known for his novels and short stories. [...] His latest book, Goli Otok (Bare Island), signals a departure from his previous works. It is more a documentary than a novel, consisting of three long interviews and several shorter ones with former inmates of a notorious concentration camp in the fifties and early sixties to which the Yugoslav government sent all those who disagreed with its policy toward the Soviet Union after World War II. Many of the approximately fifty thousand men and women who passed through these camps died there or perished soon after their release; all the survivors carried lifelong scars from their traumatic experience there. Goli Otok was but one of these camps, but its name has come to stand for the entire episode.

ISBN 86-7067-019-4

Goli Otok-Island of Death, Venko Markovski.
 
This is an English translation of the famous letters of the Bulgarian poet laureate Venko Markovski written after his release from the infamous imprisonment by Tito's government for anti-Titoist attitudes at Goli Otok.
 
About the Author: Venko Markovski is an important Bulgarian writer.
 
ISBN: 0-88033-055-4
 

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Beyond Hitler's Grasp : The Heroic Rescue of Bulgaria's Jews,
by Michael Bar-Zohar, Michael Bar Zohar.

During World War II, hundreds of thousands of Jews were deported from the Balkan states to labor and extermination camps in Germany and Poland. Bulgaria, with a Jewish population of only 50,000, sided with Hitler's government early on, its king having become convinced that only with German aid could he successfully press his territorial claims to land lost to Greece and Romania. Yet, in the face of constant German demands, Bulgaria's government refused to deport the nation's Jewish citizens. Instead, as the Bulgarian-born Israeli politician Michael Bar-Zohar writes in this fine contribution to Holocaust studies, "the Bulgarian Jews became the only Jewish community in the Nazi sphere of influence whose number increased during World War II." Bar-Zohar attributes the Bulgarian government's successful resistance to a general absence of anti- Semitism among the populace: most Bulgarian Jews were of the working class and had long since been culturally assimilated; even many of the ardent fascists in the government opposed their being murdered. To be sure, Bar-Zohar writes, the Jews of Bulgaria were persecuted--yet thanks to the efforts of leaders like the parliamentarian Dimiter Peshev and the cleric Metropolitan Stefan, they were spared the terrible fate of so many other Jews in the region. Bar-Zohar's book recounts an almost unknown episode of World War II history through a well-told, fast-paced narrative. --Gregory McNamee

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Disraeli, Gladstone, and the Eastern Question: A Study in Diplomacy and Party Politics, Vol. 594.
By Robert William Seton-Watson
 
Professor Seton-Watson examines the public agitation in England over the Turkish massacres known as the 'the Bulgarian atrocities' and shows how diplomacy and party politics interacted, altering Britain's traditional policy toward the Turkish Empire. He gives an illuminating account of the territorial settlements made at the Congress of Berlin and their effect on the shape of Europe, and offers evidence that from the perspective of later events the triumph belonged not to Disraeli, but to Gladstone.

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"AIR POWER OF THE KINGDOM OF BULGARIA"
 
"AIR POWER OF THE KINGDOM OF BULGARIA"
By Dimitar Nedialkov, Sofia, October 2001. 4 Volumes each  60 pages, format: 28 x 21 cm, soft cover,  parallel text in English and Bulgarian.
PRICE for all 4 volumes:  $ 24.00
 
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BulgMilitia. Macedonia's Secret Army: The IMRO Militia and Volunteer Battalions of Southwestern Macedonia, 1943-1944.

48 pages, saddle-stitched, 3 poor quality photos (BUT EXTREMELY RARE) of the principal pro-Axis, pro-Bulgarian leaders from Macedonia on BOTH the Yugoslav and Greek sides of the border. An extremely interesting and rare history. Only $10.00.

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THE BALKAN WAR 1912-1913.
ISBN 954-90587-8-6
 
By Alexander Vachkov, Sofia, November 2001.  144 pages, soft cover, size: 24 x 16 cm,  parallel text in English and Bulgarian.
 
From the publishers of the Bulgarian armor books. The book presents an illustrated description and study of the Balkan war 1912-1913 from the  Bulgarian point of view. An historical look at these messed up part of Europe where the patriotism and National pride come  together to a  military miracle. Fight for freedom for land and for revenge. Technical and statistical description of the army equipment and human resources of  the Bulgarian  army in this war, that made the impossible possible.
 
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Balkan Wars, 1912-1913 : Prelude to the First World War (Warfare and History)
by Richard C. Hall

Richard Hall examines the origins, the enactment and the resolution of the Balkan Wars, during which the Ottoman Empire fought a Balkan coalition of Bulgaria, Greece, Montenegro and Serbia, that collapsed in 1913. Based on archival as well as published diplomatic and military sources, this book provides the first comprehensive perspective on the diplomatic and military aspects of the Balkan Wars. It demonstrates that, because of the diplomatic problems raised and the military strategies and tactics pursued to resolve those problems, the Balkan Wars were the first phase of the greater and wider conflict of the First World War.

About the Author
Richard C. Hallis Professor of History at Minnesota State University, Mankato and is the author of Bulgaria's Road to the First World War,(1996).

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The Other Balkan Wars
by George F. Kennan

Preamble: "The Other Balkan Wars" is a reprint of the Report of the International Commission To Inquire into the Causes and Conduct of the Balkan Wars (1912-1913). It was published by Carnegie Endowment for International Peace in May-June of 1993, under the presidentship of Morton Abramovitz.
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Bulgarian-Bulgaria Bible.
 
This is by far the best traslation of the bible available in Bulgarian. The only problem is that it is in old Bulgarian and even some Bulgars have problems with it. It uses a couple of letters no longer used in Bulgaria but after you learn these it is really rather simple. Assuming of course that you already speak Bulgarian. This is also the bible approved by the American Bible society and used by most protestant religions. It is not the bible used by the Bulgarian Orthodox church.
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Imprisoned for Christ: A Stirring Testament to God's Sustaining Grace in a Balkan Prison.
by Christo Kulichev, Michael Paul Halcomb
 
Arrested for preaching Christ...Imprisoned for the Gospel...Substained by God's grace...Released to God's Glory...An evangelical pastor, Rev. Christo Kulichev became a marked man by the Communist party in Bulgaria for his outspoken faith and preaching. He was arrested, tried, and imprisoned for his disobedience to the Communist regime. This is his story of faith in a time of great personal persecution.

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Books for Bulgaria and the Bulgarians.
 
From TANGRA the All Bulgarian Foundation. The Series "Bulgarian Eternity" and the Series for children "The Bulgarians trough the centuries."
 
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Ancient Gold: The Wealth of the Thracians: Treasures from the Republic of Bulgaria.
 
By Ivan Marazov (Editor), Alexander Fol, Margarita Tacheva, Ivan Venedikov, Aleksandur Fol. This is the first book that captures the unique culture of Thrace through extensive photographs of ancient treasures from museums throughout Bulgaria. I am happy to see that all photographs are accompanied with captions providing a wealth of information about the objects as well as info in which museums they can be seen. The preface details the history, culture, and religion of Thrace, and it's filled with fascinating facts.

Byzantium and Bulgaria: A Comparative Study across the Early Medieval Frontier.
 
By Robert Browning / Hardcover / University of California Press / January 1974.
 
Format: Hardcover, 232pp.
ISBN: 0520026705
Publisher: University of California Press
Pub. Date: January  1974
 

Tatarskoye respublikanskoye izdatel'stvo "Xeter" (Tarix) - book publisher in Kazan.

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The White Book on the terrorism of the so-called NLA aims to promote the truth regarding the activities of the so-called human rights and democracy fighters of the so-called NLA in Republic of Macedonia. It aims to tell the true motives and objectives, as well as to condemn the atrocities and the acts of violence and terror as not appropriate for democracy, for civilized societies and for the universal human values...Warning: Some of the material at this web site is graphic, brutal, and shocking. Persons who do not wish to see or read such material should go no further.

Ordering instructions - Bulgarian Books only.

HENRI POZZI - BLACK HAND OVER EUROPE.
 
Reprint of the 1935 edition. Published by the Croatian Information Centre, Zagreb 1994. Consisting of WAR IS COMING AGAIN by Henri Pozzi. Translated by FRANCIS J. MOTT
 

Ashkharhatsoyts: The Seventh Century Geography Attributed to Ananias of Shirak.
 
Publisher:   Caravan                   Date / City:   1994 / Delmar
Language(s):   Classical Armenian, English Introduction.
ISBN #   0-88206-083-X
 

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Crucified Kosovo.

There is a special reason why a Serbian book would be promoted at this Bulgarian website. Albanian desecration, looting, burning and dynamiting of sacred Orthodox Churches is a major problem both in Kosovo and in Bulgarian Macedonia. This issue threatens to unite the Balkan Orthodox against a common threat and that could spell the 3rd Balkan War (after 1912-13).

Here is evidence of Albanian terrorism:

The St. Atanasius Orthodox church in the Macedonian village of Lesok was destroyed August 20, 2001. When Macedonians were allowed to visit the old Matejce monastery (September 21, 2001), by UCK/NLA, they found it desecrated by these godless monsters. On December 8, 2001, the night before St. George day another holy place was struck by UCK/NLA's cowardly hand, the church St Gjorgjija was burned down and there are no documents for which to restore it...

Crucified Kosovo, Help to Serbs in Kosovo and Metohia.

Serbian National Defense Council of America has been authorized to sell the book "Crucified Kosovo" and to gather financial help for Serbs in Kosovo by Diocese of Raska-Prizren and His Grace Bishop Artemije of Kosovo. We appeal to the Serbs in the U.S.A. and Canada help this action by ordering the book, printed on fine color, Serbian and English language. Crucified Kosovo is "our cry and appeal to the Christian and civilized world", book that takes account of destroyed and desecrated Serbian Orthodox churches in Kosovo and Metohia.

Please help, order the book by sending your cheque to Serbian National Defense Council of America. Price: $ 10.00 / S&H $3.00 = $13.00

Please, mail your order to the following address, along with your cheque:

Serbian National Defense
5782 North Elston Ave.
Chicago, IL 60646-5546

The Systematic Destruction of Orthodox Christian Churches and Cemeteries in Kosovo-Metohija and Macedonia (Serbiana - By Carl Savich).

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UNCIVIL WAR.

Award winning Canadian journalist Scott Taylor, author of INAT: Images of Serbia and the Kosovo Conflict. This book is presented as a compilation of Scott Taylor's first-hand observation and news reports from the Macedonian conflict 2001, and consists primarily of eyewitness observations and interviews with the people and players who are shaping the future of this land.

General Book Info:

Title: Diary of an uncivil war: the violent aftermath of the Kosovo conflict.
ISBN: 1-895896-20-7
Suggested Retail Price: $19.99

Description: 6" X 9" trade paperback, 208 pp, black and white photos, index, chronology, short biographies of political figures.
Bulk discounts (five books +) 40%
Publisher: Esprit de Corps Books
Book Launch date: February 22, 2002

To order this book:

Esprit de Corps Books, 204-1066 Somerset Street West, Ottawa, ON, K1Y4T3, TEL: (613) 725-1019 / Email: espritdecorp@idirect.com / Contact: Katherine Taylor.

Can be ordered online on Amazon.com.

Libraries.

Bulgaria: St. Cyrill and St. Methodius National Library.

Cultural & Educational Societies and Institutions.

Ministry of Culture, mk.

Ministry of Education Mk.

Ministry of Education and Science Bg.

The Statement on the Intentions between the State Hermitage Museum, the Ministry of Culture of the Tatarstan Republic.

Bulgaria-America Cultural Exchange, Inc. (BACE)

Bulgarian-American Cultural Elite.

The Bulgarian-Macedonian National Educational and Cultural Center in Pittsburgh, USA.

Hashove, Bulgarian-German Student Organization.

Oxford University Bulgarian Society.

Harvard Bulgarian Club.

St.Kliment Ohridski University of Sofia.

Bulgarian Universities / Colleges.

School Listings: Bulgaria.

ABSA - Association of Bulgarian Students Abroad.

University of Sofia, Faculty of History.

Studentsko Nacionalno Dvizhenie.

REPUBLIKA MAKEDONIJA UNIVERZITET "SV. KIRIL I METODIJ" SKOPJE.

Chuvash State University.

Bashkir State University.

Kazan University.

Kabardino-Balkarian State University, Nalchik.

Dress, Design & Folk Costumes - Cuisine.

Bulgarian folk costumes.

Chuvash dress.

Tatar Dress.

Clothing of Bashkirs.

Tatar Cuisine.

Language.

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There never was any serious doubt that the Slavic population of Macedonia belonged to the same linguistic, historical and cultural zone as the Bulgarians.

Moreover, the Bulgaro-Macedonian bipolarism ceases being an oddity when viewed in the context of Bulgarian history, which was noted for its continuous seesawing between southwest and northeast, between the Macedonian Ohrid of Saint Kliment and the northeastern Preslav of Saint Naum, two great centers of Cyrillo-Methodian literary activity in the 9th century. Since these early times, political troubles and foreign invasions had kept the Bulgarian timber balanced up and down the bipolar corridor:

the flight of the Preslav scholars to the west in the late 10th century; the rise of the School of Tirnovgrad in the northeast during the Second Empire (12th-14th centuries); the custodial duty of the west during the Ottoman period (the monasteries of Rila, Zograf and Hilandar, and the Catolic school centered in Chiprovec); the decisive role of the northeast in the 19th century Bulgarian Awakening and the adoption of the Eastern Bulgarian dialect as a basis of Bulgarian literary language; Macedonia being excluded from the Bulgarian state by decision of powers at the Congress of Berlin (June-July 1878) some four month after its inclusion in the Great Bulgaria of the Treaty of San Stefano (March 3, 1878). But despite this alternate movement, no Serb observer before the late 1860s really tried to cut piece of timber for Serbia. Stjapan Verkovic, a Serbianized Croat and a former Franciscan friar who adopted Orthodoxy and entered the Serbian service in Ottoman Macedonia, entitled his collection of Macedonian folk songs (1860) The Folk Songs of Macedonian Bulgars, and noted in the introduction that the title was chosen because "should somebody today ask a Macedonian Slav, "What are you?" he would immediately get the answer, "I am a Bulgarian and my language is Bulgarian".

THE NATIONAL QUESTION IN YUGOSLAVIA, by Ivo Banac
Cornell University Press, 1988
pages 309/310

Bulgarian Translators Online.

Bulgarian Books and Courses.

Bulgarian Language Study Bookstore: Bulgarian Language Books.

Bulgarian Language Pronounciation, Spelling and Punctuation...

Inscriptions and Alphabet of the Proto-Bulgarians, by Peter Dobrev (East-Iranian Language branch).

Cyrillic fonts.

Online-converter of Cyrillic fonts.

Universal Cyrillic Converter.

Soviet Archives on the Creation of Macedonian Language in 1945.

Czar Boris questions about the "Macedonian" language.

On the codefication of the Macedonian Literary Language & the Serbophile Blazhe Koneski, by Tasho Alusheff.

Map of Bulgarian Dialects in the Balkans (cross-border).

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Etymologies of the Ethnonyms Blgar, Macedon etc.

Chronological list of existing Etymologies of the Ethnonym BOLGAR(IN).

Explaination what the name Macedon [of Greek origin] means.

The Scouts of Bulgaria.

National Organization of Bulgarian Scouts.

Science.

Bulgarian Antarctic Institute.

Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia.

Bulgarian and Macedonian Institutes.

The Bulgarian Scientific Group in JINR.

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Space Exploration.

Ten Bulgarians Are Ready for Space Flights.

Standartnews
Milko Hristov
Saturday, 30 November 2002

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We have at least 10 Bulgarian pilots ready for space flights who were tested in Russia, said Prof. Boris Bonev, president of the Space Agency, at the Council of Ministers yesterday. To him, Bulgaria again has the chance to take part in space flights.
 
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SPACE - RESEARCH - BULGARIAN EQUIPMENT.

Arctic Exploration.

Base "St. Kliment Ohridski"